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Publicado: 04/21/2024

DOI: https://doi.org/10.58994/adopa.v2i1.29

Análisis descriptivo de vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedad meningocócica. República Dominicana, 2016-2021

Cómo citar

1.
Castillo DN, Ramírez J. Análisis descriptivo de vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedad meningocócica. República Dominicana, 2016-2021. ADOPA. 2024;2(1):9-22. Disponible en: http://adopa.pediatriadominicana.org/index.php/adopa/article/view/29

Resumen

Introduction: Meningococcal disease (MD) is an infection caused by Neisseria Meningitidis (NM) and affects the meningeal membranes of the nervous system. It can cause significant brain damage and the fatality rate ranges from 10% to 15%, reaching up to 40% in MD. The highest incidence rates occur in children under 10 years of age. Worldwide, there is a seasonal pattern (late winter-early spring). MD surveillance must be able to detect, investigate and confirm cases, essentially to control the disease.

Methods: Analysis in time, place and person of 66 cases of MD based of 82 reported in the period 2016-2021. The data were obtained from the National Epidemiological Surveillance System, primary registry of results from the national laboratory and the population base of the ONE. Frequencies and rates, measures of central tendency and dispersion were calculated.

Results: An average of 11 cases were reported per year. The incidence in 2016 was 0.20, in 2017 it was 0.14 and in 2018 it was 0.13; In 2021 the rate was 0.03. The Barahona province had an incidence of 2.65 and Duarte 2.33. In October-December, 29% (19/66) of cases appear. 20% (13/66) were 1-4 years old (Median 12; Range 2 months-76 years). 61% (40/66) were male. 44% (29/66) of cases were sampled; 46% (13/28) confirmed. Of the serogroups identified, 58% (7/12) corresponded to NM Type C. The overall fatality rate due to MS was 41% (27/66); in those over 40 it was 89% (8/9).

Conclusions: The highest incidence was in 2016; a possible pattern of case appearance in autumn and early winter was identified that was different from the global pattern of late winter and early spring. Those under 4 years of age got sicker, but those over 40 years of age had a higher fatality rate. Of the serogroups identified, the most frequent was NM Type C, a serogroup associated with outbreaks. Diagnostic coverage must be improved to identify serogroups and their relationship to the appearance of cases.

Abstract

Introduction: Meningococcal disease (MD) is an infection caused by Neisseria Meningitidis (NM) and affects the meningeal membranes of the nervous system. It can cause significant brain damage and the fatality rate ranges from 10% to 15%, reaching up to 40% in MD. The highest incidence rates occur in children under 10 years of age. Worldwide, there is a seasonal pattern (late winter-early spring). MD surveillance must be able to detect, investigate and confirm cases, essentially to control the disease.

Methods: Analysis in time, place and person of 66 cases of MD based of 82 reported in the period 2016-2021. The data were obtained from the National Epidemiological Surveillance System, primary registry of results from the national laboratory and the population base of the ONE. Frequencies and rates, measures of central tendency and dispersion were calculated.

Results: An average of 11 cases were reported per year. The incidence in 2016 was 0.20, in 2017 it was 0.14 and in 2018 it was 0.13; In 2021 the rate was 0.03. The Barahona province had an incidence of 2.65 and Duarte 2.33. In October-December, 29% (19/66) of cases appear. 20% (13/66) were 1-4 years old (Median 12; Range 2 months-76 years). 61% (40/66) were male. 44% (29/66) of cases were sampled; 46% (13/28) confirmed. Of the serogroups identified, 58% (7/12) corresponded to NM Type C. The overall fatality rate due to MS was 41% (27/66); in those over 40 it was 89% (8/9).

Conclusions: The highest incidence was in 2016; a possible pattern of case appearance in autumn and early winter was identified that was different from the global pattern of late winter and early spring. Those under 4 years of age got sicker, but those over 40 years of age had a higher fatality rate. Of the serogroups identified, the most frequent was NM Type C, a serogroup associated with outbreaks. Diagnostic coverage must be improved to identify serogroups and their relationship to the appearance of cases.

Referencias

Organización Mundial de la Salud: Meningitis meningocócica, nota descrip- tiva: 28 de septiembre de 2021. Disponible en: https://www.who.int/es/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/meningococcal-meningitis

Salgado Balbás Y, Deschamps Perdomo A. Enfermedad meningocócica: a propósito de un caso de exposición ocupacional y análisis de su prevención y control. Revista de la Asociación Española de Especialistas en Medicina del Trabajo. 2019;28(2):136-43. Epub. Recuperado de: http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1132-62552019000200006&lng=es&tlng=es

Organización Panamericana de la Salud: Meningitis meningocócica, nota descriptiva: Disponible en: https://www.paho.org/es/temas/meningococo

Pimentel R. Evaluación sistema de vigilancia de enfermedad meningocócica. [Tesis para optar por la maestría de Salud Pública]. Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD); febrero 2005

Red de vigilancia de la comunidad de Madrid, enfermedades obligatorias. Protocolo de vigilancia de la enfermedad meningocócica. Disponible en: https://www.comunidad.madrid/sites/default/files/doc/sanidad/epid/enfermedad_meningococica_protocolo_de_vigilancia_rev_julio_2019_0.pdf

Licencia

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.